Organizing and planning are linked in many ways and mutually dependent. The main difference is that planning concerns itself with deciding what work is to be done while organizing concerns itself primarily with the arrangements for getting it done.
From a human resource utilization viewpoint, it is necessary for managers to raise a number of questions: What needs to be accomplished, and why? When must it be done, and where is the best place to do it? What are the logical classifications into which the work must be divided? What form of organization will provide the best arrangement of human resources to accomplish this job? What positions are needed? Who will do the work? What relationships, formal and informal, need to be integrated and communicated to insure cohesive teamwork and interrelationship of goals?
Every manager wants to have a good working climate – to have a group of employees who are motivated to achieve business goals and accept them as their personal goals. The creation of this environment is largely dependent upon the manager’s interpersonal skills; in such a climate each individual assumes complete responsibility not only for doing his own job to the best of his ability, but also for integrating his efforts with those of all other individuals who affect his work or are affected by it.
Every act of management requires a cooperative relationship between two or more persons for its successful consummation. A unity of purpose produces the most productive working climate.
The organization structure itself has a profound effect on people attitudes toward their work. Organization structure, in its broadest sense, includes all the working relationships within the organization – all the individual and collective responsibilities, whether specifically indicated or not.
To a given manager, the formal organization represents what is expected from his personal output. He relates to others in terms of who works on what, when, and why as well as who is dependent on whom for the flow of work. Even a position title implies an understanding of duties, responsibilities, and relationships.
All this serves to stress the fact that every manager needs to plan his segment of the organization in accord with the overall structure. If it is allowed to evolve by itself, many of the concerns expressed earlier will become real problems. When the organization is well planned, more work can be done at less cost because people will know what is expected of them as well as why it needs to be done.
Every manager has a natural tendency to concentrate on short-term results; this is usually the primary basis on which he is compensated and promoted. The human resources executive must convince top management that by giving balanced attention to the future through development of human resources; today work will not suffer, but will actually improve. If tomorrow is not planned for, it may find everyone unprepared when it comes.
Basing an organization on sound planning helps to prevent the crises of unforeseen personnel needs and the sudden unexpected shortage of some specialized talent.
The difference between making things happen and just allowing them to happen is accounted for by good organization planning. When people are confused as to what is expected of them and of others with whom they work, they miss opportunities and are slow to react to problems. Both situations are dealt with more quickly when everyone knows what is expected of him and what to expect from others.
Managers must be sensitive to the needs of people. It has already been stressed that most people want to do a good job; they want to learn, to grow, to improve their lot. But their viewpoints must be respected. The right organization structure helps to provide this climate of motivation in which people do the excellent work that they want to do anyway.
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